One of the most important materials for the energy transition, cobalt is widely used in rechargeable batteries

Cobalt (Co)

Cobalt is highly valued for its thermal stability and high energy density. These qualities mean that cobalt is used in the cathodes of most types of rechargeable batteries. Cobalt is also used as a superalloy in gas turbine engines, and has significant applications in cutting tools, catalysts, and magnets.

DR Congo is by far the largest producer of cobalt and holds just over half of identified reserves. China is, however, dominant in cobalt refining.

Cobalt suffers from a very high perceived association with ESG risks. These risks are largely concentrated in the ASM sector in DR Congo – although the vast majority of cobalt is produced in large-scale mines and the share of ASM in cobalt production has been steadily declining for many years.

Of the ESG issues associated with cobalt, child labour is the most prominent. Major downstream users have faced considerable scrutiny and even legal action over their use of cobalt, because of its association with child labour.

Main Uses and Attributes

Around 50 percent of cobalt produced worldwide is used in battery chemicals.1 Cobalt is a critical component of the cathodes used in most types of rechargeable lithium-ion batteries, due to its thermal stability and high energy density. These qualities reduce the battery’s weight and helps prevent the cathodes from over-heating.2

Cobalt’s importance in rechargeable batteries means that it is widely used in consumer electronic devices, such as mobile phones and laptops, as well as in electric vehicles and in some types of energy storage systems.

One of the other major uses of cobalt is as a superalloy material. This accounts for around 18 percent of global cobalt consumption.3 Cobalt is a component of superalloys that are used in gas turbine engines for aircraft, powerplants and petrochemical facilities, because of their stability at high temperatures.4

Cobalt’s strength and performance at high temperatures mean it is also widely used in applications such as cutting tools, catalysts, and magnets used in electric motors.5 Additionally, cobalt has been used for thousands of years to create a vivid blue colour in pigments for glass and ceramics.6

Main Uses

  • Batteries
  • Cars
  • Ceramics
  • Electronics
  • Magnets
  • Metal Alloys
  • Paints

Key Industries

  • Aerospace
  • Automotive
  • Ceramics
  • Electronics and Communications
  • Energy
  • Petrochemicals

Key Countries

Top Producer Democratic Republic Of The Congo
Top Reserves Democratic Republic Of The Congo

Supply Chain Risk

TDi assesses Cobalt for key risks affecting the security of supply, and for its association with artisanal and small-scale mining.

Overall Supply Chain Resilience Risk
Strength of Association with ASM
Very Low Moderate Very High

Country Governance Risks

Cobalt's association with countries experiencing:

Violence and Conflict
Weak Rule of Law
Poor Human Rights
Poor Environmental Governance
Very Low Moderate Very High

Association with ESG issues

TDi Sustainability's data rates Cobalt's association with the following issues as high or very high:

Violence and Conflict
Occupational Health and Safety
Child Labour
Labour Rights
Forced Labour
Indigenous Peoples Rights
Company/Community Conflicts
Community Rights Violations
Non-Payment of Taxes
Negative Biodiversity and Conservation Impact
Degraded/Fragmented Landscape
Very Low Moderate Very High

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